Cognitive Psychology: The Science of How We Think


cognitive psychology articles

Aug 19,  · From understanding how cognitive processes change over the course of child development to looking at how the brain transforms sensory inputs into perceptions, cognitive psychology has helped us gain a deeper and richer understanding of the many mental events that contribute to our daily existence and overall well-being. Meet Psychology Today's Bloggers on Cognition Anne Cleary, Ph.D., is a professor at Colorado State University. Lawrence T. White, Ph.D., is a professor of psychology at Beloit College. Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. It had its foundations in the Gestalt psychology of Max.

Cognitive psychology

By Saul McLeodupdated Cognitive psychology became of great importance in the mids. Several factors were important in this:. Disatisfaction with the behaviorist approach in its simple emphasis on external behavior rather than internal processes. Comparison between human and computer processing of information. The emphasis of psychology shifted away from the study of conditioned behavior and psychoanalytical notions about the study of the mind, towards the understanding of human information processing, using strict and rigorous laboratory investigation.

Behaviourists rejected the idea of studying the mind because internal mental processes cannot be observed and objectively measured. However, cognitive psychologists regard it as essential to cognitive psychology articles at the mental processes of cognitive psychology articles organism and how these influence behaviour. Cognitive psychologists follow the example of the behaviourists in preferring objective, controlled, scientific methods for investigating behaviour.

They use the results of their investigations as the basis for making inferences about mental processes. Information processing in humans resembles that in computers, and is based on based on transforming information, storing information and retrieving information from memory.

Information processing models of cognitive processes such as memory and attention assume that mental processes follow a clear sequence. Storage processes cover everything that happens to stimuli internally in the brain and can include coding and manipulation of the stimuli. Interest in mental processes had been gradually restored through the work of Piaget and Tolman. His book Purposive Behaviour in Animals and Man in described research which behaviourism found difficult to explain, cognitive psychology articles.

However, Tolman suggested that learning was based on the relationships which formed amongst stimuli. He referred to these relationships as cognitive maps. But it was the arrival of the computer that gave cognitive psychology the terminology and metaphor it needed to investigate the human mind. The start of the use of computers allowed psychologists to try to understand the complexities of human cognition by comparing it with something simpler and better understood, i.

The use of the computer as a tool for thinking how the human mind handles information is known as the computer analogy. Essentially, a computer codes i. The idea of information processing was adopted by cognitive psychologists as a model cognitive psychology articles how human thought works. Information made available from the environment is processed by a series of processing systems e. The aim of research is to specify the processes and structures that underlie cognitive performance.

The behaviorists approach only studies external observable stimulus and response behavior which can be objectively measured. In comparison, the cognitive approach believes that internal mental behavior can be scientifically studied using experiments. The mediational i. These are known as mediational processes because they mediate i. They come after the stimulus and before the response. This has involved the use of lab cognitive psychology articles to produce reliable, objective data.

The cognitive approach is probably the most dominant approach in psychology today and has been applied to a wide range of practical and theoretical contexts. Combines easily with approaches: e. For example, the use of the computer analogy means that information processing researchers focus mostly on the logical aspects of cognitive processing and less on the emotional, cognitive psychology articles, creative and social aspects that also affect thinking Cognitive psychology has often relied on comparisons with how computers work as a possible way the mind might work.

Is this really how the brain works? The brain is infinitely more powerful and flexible than the most advanced computer. Machine Reductionism Critical Evaluation. Skinner criticizes the cognitive approach as he believes that only external stimulus-response behavior should be studied as this can be scientifically measured.

Therefore, mediation processes between stimulus and response do not exist as they cannot be seen and measured. Skinner continues to find problems with cognitive research methods, namely introspection as used by Wilhelm Wundt due to its subjective and unscientific nature. Humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers believes that the use of laboratory experiments by cognitive psychology have low ecological validity and create an artificial environment due to the control over variables.

Rogers emphasizes a more holistic approach to understanding behavior. The information processing cognitive psychology articles of cognitive psychology views that minds in terms of a computer when processing information. Cognitive psychology articles, although there are similarities between the human mind and the operations of a computer inputs and outputs, storage systems, the use of a central processor the computer analogy has been criticised by many, cognitive psychology articles.

Such machine reductionism simplicity ignores the influence of human emotion and motivation on the cognitive system and how this may affect our ability to process information. Behaviorism assumes that people are born a blank slate tabula rasa and are not born with cognitive functions like schemasmemory or perception.

The cognitive approach does not always recognize physical re: biological psychology and environmental re: behaviorism factors in determining behavior. Cognitive psychology has influenced and integrated with many other approaches and areas of study to produce, for example, social learning theorycognitive neuropsychology and artificial intelligence AI. Another strength is that the research conducted in this area of psychology very often has application in the real world.

The basis of CBT is to change the way the persons processes their thoughts to make them more rational or positive. Atkinson, R. Chapter: Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K. The psychology of learning and motivation Volume 2. New York: Academic Press. Beck, A. Beck Anxiety Inventory Manual. Cognitive psychology articles Antonio: Harcourt Brace and Company. Hollon, S. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies. Garfield Eds. New York: Wiley.

An aspect of Gestalt psychology. Miller, G. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review63 2 : 81— Tolman E. Cognitive maps in rats and men.

Psychological Review. Wiener, N. Cybernetics or control and communication in the animal and the machine. MIT Press. McLeod, S. Cognitive psychology. Toggle navigation. Instead of the simple stimulus-response links proposed by behaviourism, the mediational processes of the organism are important to understand, cognitive psychology articles. Without cognitive psychology articles understanding, psychologists cannot have a complete understanding of behaviour.

For example: Input processes are concerned with the analysis of the stimuli. Cognitive psychology articles processes are responsible for preparing an appropriate cognitive psychology articles to a stimulus.

Key Features. Cognitive psychology is a pure science, based mainly on laboratory experiments. Behavior can be largely explained in terms of how the mind operates, i. The mind works in a way similar to a computer: inputting, storing and retrieving data. Mediational processes occur between stimulus and response. One strength of the cognitive approach it has always employed highly controlled and rigorous methods of study in order to enable researchers to infer cognitive processes at work. Cognitive psychology has a narrow focus on mental processes, cognitive psychology articles.

For example, the use of the computer cognitive psychology articles means that information processing researchers focus mostly on the logical aspects of cognitive processing and less on the emotional, creative and social aspects that also affect thinking, cognitive psychology articles.

Cognitive psychology has often relied on comparisons with how computers work as a possible way the mind might work. Download this article as a PDF, cognitive psychology articles. How to reference this article: McLeod, S. Back to top.


Cognitive Psychology - Journal - Elsevier


cognitive psychology articles


Recently published articles from Cognitive Psychology. Track accepted paper. Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of the mind as an information processor. Cognitive psychologists try to build up cognitive models of the information processing that goes on inside people’s minds, including perception, attention, language, memory, thinking, and Saul Mcleod. A baseline understanding of cognitive theory and educational psychology concepts is critical to successful student learning. With librarians in all settings providing more teaching and training than ever, designing educational experiences with these concepts in mind will result in .